- PostBusiness & Biodiversity – How businesses understand and work with biodiversity(2023) Andréasson, Hanna; Chalmers tekniska högskola / Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation; Chalmers University of Technology / Department of Technology Management and Economics; Palme, Ulrika; Palme, UlrikaThe Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework that was agreed in 2022 puts increased demand on businesses to understand and take responsibility for their dependency and impact on biodiversity. With the current lack of standardised methods enabling transparency, comparability and equality, there is vast amount of work ahead and there is a need for transformative change to create a new trajectory where the goals and targets of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework can be achieved. The aim of the thesis was to analyse the relationship between business and biodiversity by mapping how businesses understand and work with biodiversity within their organisation, and what incentives or barriers are recognised. The purpose was to bridge the gap between business and biodiversity by increasing knowledge and potentially inspire businesses who haven’t yet initiated their work with biodiversity to do so. A qualitative method was used combining a literature study and an interview study with semi-structured interviews. The interviews were held with 17 businesses, from nine different sectors, who had claimed to work with or have an interest in biodiversity. The findings show that businesses’ understanding of biodiversity varies and that there is a lack of knowledge. Although most businesses have a definition for biodiversity, it is not always clear how biodiversity relates to their businesses, as dependency and impact are rarely defined. Businesses tend to use their own methods to strategically work with biodiversity, focusing on implementing biodiversity related measures, use certifications and participating in trade associations. Official frameworks are used to a lesser extent, but among these the most commonly used ones are the Global Reporting Initiative, GRI, and the Mitigation Hierarchy. There is also interest in the upcoming frameworks Taskforce on Nature-Related Financial, TNFD, and Science-Based Targets for Nature, SBTN, which both show potential in becoming standardised methods due to their alignment between each other and to different reporting standards. To set targets, businesses mainly use indicators that focus on activities connected to biodiversity, such as having certain numbers of biodiversity measures implemented or shares of certified products. However, businesses struggle to assess the actual impact on biodiversity and follow up on efforts. Due to this, most businesses do not tend to have any results yet connected to biodiversity, but the few that had used them to find hot spots and what to prioritise. The most frequently mentioned incentives are customers and social acceptance, the interest and internal drive from owners and management, and the demand from financial stakeholders and recent or upcoming regulation. The most frequently mentioned barriers are the lack of standardised methods to assess impact on biodiversity and follow up efforts, prioritisation, economy and the need for increased demand, lack of knowledge on what biodiversity means for businesses, and uncertainties of approach within the work with biodiversity. This thesis shows businesses willingness to work with biodiversity but that there is a need for further guidance as there is still a lack of knowledge and standardised methods. With the various recently adopted regulations and directives presented in this study, it is clear that the demand on businesses to understand and work with biodiversity will increase significantly. This study has identified different frameworks and tools that could be used by businesses to guide their work with biodiversity and discussed how different incentives have the potential to counteract recognised barriers. Hopefully, this can contribute to bridge the gap between business and biodiversity and inspire businesses to be part of the transformative change that is needed for the achievement of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and enhance life on earth.
- PostFeasibility Study of Localization and Local Sourcing for Factory-In-A-Box Solution for Contribution to Humanitarian Development in Turkey(2023) Özer, Can; Mandli, Suraj; Chalmers tekniska högskola / Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation; Chalmers University of Technology / Department of Technology Management and Economics; Arvidsson, Ala; Arvidsson, AlaDisasters in today's world result in a significant housing shortage that has a profound impact on the society and countries affected. In addition, those harmed by natural disasters have lost their employment opportunities and economic power. Neighboring nations taking in refugees in camps and settlements from the nations affected by these disasters. Although these camps offer shelter to those in need, it is not always easy or effective for them to integrate into the local population. Localized factory-in-a-box facilities would therefore have a significant impact on how well refugees integrate into society. Additionally, it would be more practical to build portable houses, field hospitals, temporary schools, and other infrastructure. The local population and refugees who are incompetent in terms of skills, education, and language would also make up the labor force in these mobile factories. Therefore, setting up factory-in-a-box facilities in nations that host large numbers of refugees who are willing to work could help build humanitarian settlements. Turkey was chosen as the location for Factory-in-a-Box because of the country's history of natural disasters, demographics, physical infrastructure, and refugee camps. The establishment of a factory-in-a-box solution in Turkey can provide temporary housing and jobs for those affected by the disaster. The localization of a factory-in-a-box in Turkey is made possible by extensive research on variables including incentives, the nation of origin of the brand, and supplier accessibility. After conducting research on localization, industrialists and academics were interviewed to learn more about the difficulties in localizing the bill of materials, including the availability of raw materials, quality and the search for environmentally friendly products, high inflation rates. Finally, a new raw material is recommended by the implementation of the Pugh matrix and the results that were derived.
- PostHigh-risk supply chain mapping for ABB Robotics Investigating why, what, and how to map in terms of human rights and environmental issues.(2023) Rangaswamy, Hemanth; Shivakumar, Karthik; Chalmers tekniska högskola / Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation; Chalmers University of Technology / Department of Technology Management and Economics; Roso, Violeta; Jacobsson, StefanIn a landscape where many speaks upon sustainability there is also an increase in regulations, ethical obligations that must be followed from the organizations due to global interconnectedness. Meanwhile, in the present landscape of global supply chains, the need for thorough understanding, visibility, and mitigation of risks has never been more critical. This places organizations in a position where they must identify and mitigate the various risks hidden in their supply networks. As a result, this thesis begins an investigation into the arena of supply chain mapping in the upstream supply chain, with an emphasis on ABB Robotics. The overall aim is to investigate why, what, and how ABB Robotics should map their high-risk supply chain in terms of human rights and environmental issues. The investigation steers through a variety of legislations and their counterparts. These regulatory frameworks, demanding transparency, and due diligence, indicates a new era of accountability and sustainability, compelling organizations to extend their scrutiny beyond Tier 1 suppliers, to the far-reaching levels of Tier n. Further, implicating the focus on high-risk categories within ABB Robotics to empathize while adhering to the compliances of regulations diligently. Drawing inspiration from the Accountability Framework Initiative (AFi), a comprehensive framework encompassing human rights and environmental considerations, this research yields a multi-dimensional mapping approach. The proposed framework rests on three pillars: Supply Network Maps, Supply Chain Maps, and the innovative Supply Chain Network Structure. These components collaboratively decode the sophisticated circle of supply chain interactions, combining macro-level insights with micro-level granularity. Furthermore, the thesis delves into the practical complexities of multi-tier mapping. It unravels the step-by-step methodology, urging ABB Robotics to embark on a journey from stakeholder identification to supplier engagement and comprehensive risk assessment. As the study delves into data sources and tools, it underscores the potential of digital technologies, such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, and big data analytics, to enhance the accuracy and agility of supply chain mapping. These transformative tools have the capacity to elevate ABB Robotics ability to trace materials, validate suppliers, and ensure compliance across the complexity of its supply chain. This thesis outlines an initiative-taking approach to supply chain mapping, enabling ABB Robotics resilient in the face of dynamic regulatory environments, ethical considerations, and sustainability obligations. Through the comprehensive adoption of multi-tier mapping, ABB Robotics can enable its commitment to identify, assess, prevent, and mitigate the human rights and environmental issues in its upstream supply chain.
- PostCreating a framework for material selection of polymers to use in trucks(2023) Hjartardóttir, Ingibjörg Anna; Makam, Roshni Vijaykumar; Chalmers tekniska högskola / Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation; Chalmers University of Technology / Department of Technology Management and Economics; Svanström, Magdalena; Hermansson, FridaAn in-depth analysis of the creation of a material selection framework, specifically highlighting the transition from fossil-based polymers to renewable alternatives. Volvo Group Trucks requires a sustainability-driven material selection tool that takes material properties into consideration, enabling informed choices within a shorter time frame. The data utilized for constructing the framework was obtained from structured interviews. This material selection represents a systematic analysis that impacts product performance, expenses, and environmental repercussions. It underlines the importance of choosing polymeric materials, emphasizing the criteria used in the selection process and its contribution to achieving sustainability goals. By considering aspects like mechanical properties, cost- effectiveness, accessibility, and environmental implications, this approach can narrow down the most fitting polymeric materials for Volvo truck components. This approach symbolizes a structured material selection method, advancing sustainable practices and responsible resource utilization within the Volvo Group. The report’s structure begins with the theoretical and research methodology. Subsequently, a section dedicated to the interview findings that played an important role in shaping the material selection framework. Later in the report, there is a comprehensive explanation of the framework’s structure, and its effectiveness is assessed through a dedicated case study. Finally, the discussion section involves an analysis of the case study results and an explanation of the findings.
- PostAnalysis with Business Model Life Cycle Assessment for Innovation of a Circular Business Model A case study of rental products at events(2023) Claesson, Albin; Skogum, Christoffer; Chalmers tekniska högskola / Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation; Chalmers University of Technology / Department of Technology Management and Economics; Baumann, Henrikke; Baumann, HenrikkePlastic waste in seas and oceans is growing and becoming a larger problem. As of 2022, it was estimated that there are 139 million tonnes of plastic waste in the Earth’s aquatic environments where it harms wildlife and ecosystems (OECD, 2022). Simultaneously as the plastic waste in the oceans increase, legislations, and regulations to mitigate the environmental problem of plastic waste are beginning to being implemented (European Parliament, Council of the European Union, 2019). The Swedish government has decided that by 2024, no disposable cups with more than 15% of plastic is allowed to be sold, as response to the European Parliament’s legislation (Swedish Government, 2021).With new business models appearing, a problem rises. Substituting old business models with new ones that uses multiple use products is only beneficial if the new business models are more environmentally sustainable than the old ones. Furthermore, there has been a problem when trying to assess the environmental performance of business models as conventional product LCA often is used for assessment but fails to capture the social and economic dimensions of business model (Böckin et al., 2022). As conventional product LCA assesses a physical entity, the product as a unit and not the entire business model. The aim of this project is to understand the environmental performance of the Light My Fires rental business model for events. Furthermore, the study aims to enable business model innovation by running a sensitivity analysis that shows how the environmental impacts changes due to changes of the business model such as the return rate, rental price, loss fee, storage location and material and manufacturing cost. Lastly, the intended outcome of the project is to answer what the environmental performance of the studied business model is, what environmental hotspots there are, and suggest courses of action to maintain profit of the company while minimising the environmental impact. The functional unit of the study was desired profit level during an event season for Light My Fire.The GWP per f.u. was: 0,037 kg CO2 eq/f.u. It was found that the largest hotspots for all impact categories: Global warming potential100, Marine aquatic ecotoxicity, Acidification, Terrestrial ecotoxicity, Fresh water aquatic toxicity, Human toxicity, Abiotic depletion, Ozone layer depletion, Photochemical oxidation, Eutrophication, Abiotic depletion (fossil fuels) analysed, were the production for making up for losses depended on the return rate, the transports between Västervik, Gothenburg and Malmö, and the production of polypropylene. Interestingly, it was revealed that the return stations effect on the environmental performance of the business model was of great significance. From the sensitivity analysis it was found that the most significant change in environmental impact with a high possibility of implementing was to increase the return rate after each event. By increasing the return rate to 85% the business model would lower the kg CO2 eq/f.u. with 23% as production of new products were decreased and ultimately decreasing the need for extra transports. Furthermore, it showed that moving the storage facility to the same city as the event reduced the contribution to total emissions from transports with 8%. Further, combining the increase of return rate, with the change of storage facility entails a 32% reduction in kg CO2 eq/f.u. Studies have shown that sustainable business models are considered to reduce impacts to environment and society (Bocken et al., 2014). However, this study showed that marketing business models as sustainable without analysing its entirety could have implications in the form of unforeseen impacts. Subsequently, there are possibilities to improve sustainable business models with business innovation using the BMLCA method. Ultimately, the BMLCA worked as a tool for analysing and evaluating the environmental performance of a rental business model used at events with a timeless functional unit. The rental case differed from previous conducted studies since the case was conducted at a real event which has not been done previously, however, the method presented in this study could be successfully modified and subsequently applied to the rental business model at events.