Emerging Textile Production Technologies - Sustainability and feasibility assessment and process LCA of supercritical CO2 dyeing

Examensarbete för masterexamen
Master Thesis
Johannesson, Cecilia
The textile industry is a large industrial sector and the production of textiles and clothing is expected to increase due to the economic growth in many developing countries as well as an increasing population. The main environmental concerns for the textile industry are: large use of water, energy, chemicals and emissions to water. A lot of focus has been on new fibres instead of new production technologies. The purpose of this master thesis is therefore to review emerging textile production technologies for wet processing that are claimed to be environmental beneficial and set up sustainability and feasibility criteria for assessing these emerging technologies. Furthermore, this study aims to deliver knowledge of the environmental performance of one of the emerging technologies, namely, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) dyeing compared to conventional dyeing. This review is based on scientific literature and on interviews and for the environmental evaluation a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed. This study identified plasma technology, spin-dyeing, SC CO2 dyeing, digital printing, ozone bleaching, enzymatic treatments, electrochemical dyeing and ultrasonic treatment as emerging technologies for textile wet processing. Furthermore, this study developed seven sustainability and feasibility criteria for emerging textile production technologies, namely, cost, technical quality, flexibility, interest, technology readiness level (TRL), resource availability and environmental potential. Based on the developed criteria, SC-CO2 dyeing was chosen for further evaluation of its environmental performance. The study investigated four scenarios, two for conventional dyeing and two for SC-CO2 dyeing. Two different electricity mixes were used and an optimisation of the CO2 losses from 18% to 5% was also studied. The LCA result from the study indicates that SC-CO2 dyeing can be environmentally beneficial, given that the process is optimised regarding energy use and CO2 losses and a greener electricity mix is used. This study also shows that the production of the electricity causes the main contribution. The result from this master thesis should be seen as a first screening of the environmental performance of SC-CO2 dyeing. Future studies with further validation of process data are needed to determine if SC-CO2 dyeing can improve the environmental performance of the textile industry.
Annan naturvetenskap, Other Natural Sciences
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