Electrification of Regional Buses and Possibilities of Shared Charging with Other Transportation Modes: What impact does the electrification of transportation modes have on the electric grid? A case study in Lysekil

Examensarbete för masterexamen
Master's Thesis
Infrastructure and environmental engineering (MPIEE), MSc
Edberg, Marcus
Wagnsson, Ellinor
To reduce emissions originating from the transport sector, electrifying long-range heavy transportation modes such as regional buses and trucks is crucial. However, an identified obstacle in the early phases of electrification is the lack of required charging infrastructure, to which shared charging has emerged as a possible solution. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the possibilities of electrifying regional buses and examine the feasibility of shared charging with other transportation modes to accelerate implementation. Additionally, the impact of extensive electrification on the power grid remains uncertain. To address this aspect a case study was conducted in Lysekil, examining the impact on a limited geographical area. The overall method used was a gap analysis which was applied to the case study of Lysekil, in turn consisting of three parts. Firstly, the energy consumption and necessary charging infrastructure for electrifying a regional bus were estimated. Secondly, other transportation modes that could potentially share charging in the area were identified, and their respective charging demands were assessed. Finally, the charging demands from all transportation modes were compiled and added upon current electric consumption in Lysekil to evaluate the overall impact. Results indicate that it is possible to electrify a regional bus, where the most suitable sharing options for the examined route were with trucks charging overnight, or sharing grid connection with the locally operating electric ferry. The resulting charging demand from the electrification of heavy transport modes has a notable impact on the power grid, but to what extent depends majorly on the future share of electric trucks. In addition, the impact resulting from the electrification of personal cars and related charging will presumably have a large impact on the grid but was not taken into account due to uncertainties of the charging patterns. It is indicated that flexible solutions such as installing energy storage could reduce the required installed power output, and thereby reduce the load on the grid and risk of congestion. Therefore, to use the electrification of the transport sector as an asset, it is important to apply a system perspective.
electrification , regional buses , electric trucks , charging demand , shared charging , charging infrastructure , electromobility
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