Energy Storage Combined with Solar PVs for Large Facilities

Examensarbete för masterexamen
Master's Thesis
Product development (MPPDE), MSc
Sustainable energy systems (MPSES), MSc
Bähr, Hanna
Svensson, Maria
As part of the fight against the ongoing climate change, there has been a strong emphasis on implementing fossil-free energy sources. This has resulted in an increased demand for renewable energy sources, which in turn has put pressure on the development of such technologies. One renewable energy technique that has gained popularity, even in Sweden, is solar photovoltaic (PV). Solar power is intermittent, thus combining it with energy storage systems is beneficial in order to mitigate the intermittency and to overcome the mismatch between production and load. This master thesis investigates the suitability of investing in solar PV’s and combining them with either battery storage and hydrogen storage, the two most popular storage technologies to combine with PV’s. The scope includes commercial facilities located in the SE3 region of Sweden, and three electricity demands have been addressed in order to give the results a realistic foundation. Each demand pertains to a different facility type with varying yearly electricity demands: an office building, a production site, and a warehouse facility. Additionally, four different models were created in the study, using the linear optimization program GAMS, General Algebraic Modeling System, to address different cases. Two reference models were created for comparison of the results, one with no investments in neither PV’s nor storage system, referring to a "business as usual" scenario, and one with the possibility to only invest in PV’s. Furthermore, two models also enabled the possibility to invest in solar PV’s with or without the combination with either battery storage or hydrogen storage. In each model, three different optimization scenarios were tested, one only minimizing the total system cost, one minimizing the system cost with the goal of also increasing the self-sufficiency rate, and the third only testing the feasibility of becoming 100% self-sufficient. The findings suggest that achieving complete self-sufficiency with solar PV’s and energy storage within reasonable limits is not feasible, considering the typical electricity demand profiles of commercial buildings. In the situations where a storage system could be suitable, it was shown that battery storage outperforms hydrogen storage based on current data and input parameters. How much economical benefits a storage system can bring was proven to be highly dependent on the amount of excess electricity that the facility had, being more favourable when the excess rate was higher. It also shows that the incentive of investing in solar PV’s is higher when the electricity prices are high, and when it thereby is a potential profit created by electricity trading. Sensitivity analyses have also been carried out, assessing the results dependency on current values on taxes, component costs, etc. Investment costs are the most influential factor for improving system cost. Overall, these findings provide a framework for companies interested in exploring the business potential of energy storage investments.
solar PV’s , energy storage , battery , hydrogen , self-sufficiency , optimization , cost
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