Bottom-up characterization of the Swedish non-residential building stock - Archetype buildings and energy demand
Examensarbete för masterexamen
In Europe, the building stock occupies a large share of the energy consumed compared to other prevailing sectors. It is of great importance to monitor the energy patterns and trends within the building stocks, as well as it is of great interest to the European Union to intelligently manage the energy demand should the energy and climate targets set by the European Commission be met. A closer monitoring of the European building stocks is required if the retrofitting of existing buildings should give positive outcomes in terms of a decreased energy demand and to allow energy efficiency measures to be taken. The information regarding the building stocks in Europe, especially the non-residential ones, is limited and therefore it is an area in need of investigation, and this master thesis attempts to address this field. This master thesis is a part of a larger project, which aims at modeling the building stocks in the European countries with the largest building stocks. A methodology is used to model the energy demand of the Swedish non-residential building stock. The same methodology has been applied to the building stocks of Germany, France and Spain as well as to the residential building stock in Sweden. The methodology follows a bottom-up approach in which the Swedish non-residential stock is described by using archetype buildings. The archetype buildings are characterized by numerous parameters and are quantified. These buildings, together with their characterization and quantification, are used as input parameters in the simulation model – Energy, Carbon and Cost Assessment for Building Stocks (ECCABS). The Swedish non-residential building stock amounted to 336 archetype buildings consisting of 14 building types, 8 periods of construction and 3 climate zones. The results obtained with the ECCABS model for the final energy demand in the non-residential building stock was 41.09 TWh/yr compared to 33.7 TWh/yr presented by the Swedish Energy Agency and 46.64 TWh/yr presented in ODYSSEE’s database. The final energy demand modeled by the simulation process was 21.9 % higher than the Swedish Energy Agency’s statistics and 11.9 % lower than the statistics presented by ODYSSEE. Possible reasons for this deviation are discussed in this report.
Energi , Hållbar utveckling , Maskinteknik , Energy , Sustainable Development , Mechanical Engineering