Analysis of biomass use in the energy sector in cooperation with the chemical industry
Examensarbete för masterexamen
The use of renewable raw material has increased every year and climate change is becoming a wide spread issue in both public sector and enterprises. For both energy and chemical industry today’s most prominent alternative for fossil feedstock is biomass. Vattenfall plans to expand its use of biomass and for this reason cooperation between the energy and chemical industry with respect to biomass use could be of interest. This Master’s thesis will look at biorefinery technologies giving solid residues, and further see if these residues can be used in co-combustion with coal. Another perspective will be to see how biorefinery technologies can be combined in order to produce “right” target products and residues. A carbon cycle and energy balance has been performed to see if integration between these industries can be sustainable out of a biomass supply perspective, To evaluate different biorefinery technologies a classification and a ranking system has been developed. Categories in classification are base on Cherubini (2010) and chapter 3, 4 and 5 in this report. The ranking system is designed by seven criteria’s with different weighting factors, these are closely connected to the objective of this thesis. The c-cycle and energy balance will show how much biomass is needed to replace crude oil within chemical industry. Both calculated values are then compared with available farmland in EU-27. This thesis discusses ten different technologies that give eight valuable solid residues, five of these are of special interest for co-combustion with coal. The ranking shows that fermentation 2nd is the most promising technology, both due to target product production and valuable residue. Further promising technologies are pyrolysis, gasification and hydrolysis.The c-cycle and energy balance shows that there is enough arable land to cultivate biomass and replace the use of crude oil. Today there are good technical possibilities for cooperation between chemical and energy industry and there are several suitable residues for co-combustion with coal. Out of a sustainability perspective it is theoretical possible to exchange crude oil with biomass, but the complex land use question has to be further investigated. Also more research has to look into process integration of both different biorefinery technologies and process integration between biorefinery and coal fired power plant.
Energi , Hållbar utveckling , Övrig annan teknik , Energy , Sustainable Development , Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified