Potential for Biogas at Wineries in Moldova
Examensarbete för masterexamen
Sustainable energy systems (MPSES), MSc
Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion is a proven and renewable energy technology that has a role to play reaching towards a sustainable development. It is a process where microorganisms feed on organic matter. Moldova is wine producing country where the energy-rich waste from the wine production, pomace, is mostly landfilled today. It is therefore both free and readily available for biogas production. The aim of this thesis is to investigate if biogas produced at wineries in Moldova can be economic, it also evaluates its environmental and social benefits. The technical aspects investigated include plant scale, preferred technology, substrate and gas offset. The thesis was carried out in three steps. First a pre study, then field work during a three months stay in Moldova and finally plant calculations and dimensioning. Five wineries were included in the case study. The waste streams at the wineries and their properties and potential for biogas production were identified. The data was analyzed to get understanding of how biogas from wine production residues can be implemented in Moldova. The amount of grapes harvested at the studied wineries determined the size of the biogas plants, at each winery. Flows of energy, substrate, fertilizer and money were calculated which served as a basis for investment proposals and recommendations for the wineries. The proposed biogas plant is a tank reactor, fed with stored pomace from the local winery. It produces combined heat and power and organic fertilizer. A Moldovan winery that processes 3800 tons of grapes annually can with this technology produce over 500 GWh of electricity and 260 GWh of useful heat. The reduction in climate impact is 1100 ton of CO2-equivalents per year. The annual income of such a plant is 60 000 euro. On top of this comes the economic benefit from the organic fertilizer. This plant has an investment cost of 260 000 euro which gives a payback time of less than five years. The export potential for biogas companies to deliver these solutions is 6.4 million euro for the 20 largest wineries in Moldova. Moldovan wineries are interested but need assistance with planning and implementation. The conclusion is that a biogas plant at a Moldovan winery is profitable and also reduces climate impact and contributes to energy independency and security. Investment is therefore recommended. It can also be an interesting possibility for other wine producing countries.
Energi , Hållbar utveckling , Övrig annan teknik , Energy , Sustainable Development , Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified