Model of a standing bus passenger: Modelling Safety for Non-Impact Collisions
Projektarbete, avancerad nivå
Gebel, Till Rune
Niranjan Poojary, Yash
Public transport has been an efficient and convenient mode of transport for diverse population, though they are considered safe, but considerable injuries to passengers occur even due to non-crash related incidents. Evasive maneuvers, sudden accelerations or braking influence the posture of a standing passengers and result in them loosing balance. This project aims at developing a model to simulate the motion of a standing passenger influenced by distinct acceleration profiles and predict the time of when the passenger’s foot is off the ground. Extreme limits for imbalance is decided based on the position of the center of mass with respect to the ankle to find the instance for the event to occur. In order to capture the passenger response during these incidents a mathematical model is designed based on Single inverted pendulum (SIP) with a torsion spring at the ankle. The SIP models the motion of the standing passenger. In the model the torques acting on the ankle are two different kinds, one due to the center of mass and the other due to the muscle influence. A feedback controller consisting of a proportional and a predictive part is designed to control the torque influence due to the muscle actions. The stiffness of the ankles are calculated based on the combined torques due to the muscles and the center of mass. The output i.e. the predicted time for imbalance is influenced by various factors such as the acceleration jerk, amplitude and duration along with the reaction time of the person. The results obtained can be further used in the implementation of passenger safety features in the transportation industry as the model in this project can help in detailed study of the factors affecting the posture during standing and the prediction of the time for imbalance. Knowledge of the passenger’s state of balance can be an input signal to activate a safety feature. The model developed also has a lot of applications in the development of complex Human Body Models (HBM).
Non-crash incidents , Evasive maneuvers , Single Inverted Pendulum , torsion spring , Feedback controller , HBM