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- PostTowards zero energy buildings: retrofitting an existing recreational facility: A case study of a sauna facility on Styrsö(2022)A resolution by the European Union adopted in 2010 designates that all new buildings in the EU must be classified as nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEB) by the end of 2020. A recent proposal by the Commission specifies that by 2030, all new buildings are to be zero-energy buildings (ZEB). A nZEB is defined as a building with a very high energy performance where the total net energy consumption is nearly zero, whereas a ZEB is defined as a building with a total net energy consumption equal to zero. The directive also includes that every member state in the EU has to present a renovation plan for the existing building stock to decrease their environmental impact and achieve the goals of the EU. Sweden has introduced a climate policy framework aiming to have net zero emissions by 2045 and is developing a long-term renovation strategy in line with the EU. This study investigates the energy reduction potential and the energy performance of a very energy-consuming building. The project focuses on a recreational facility on Styrsö in the southern archipelago of Gothenburg, Sweden. Moreover, the project aims to create awareness and convert the sauna facility at Styrsö Hafsbad into a nZEB using European and Swedish criteria and definitions, with the ultimate goal of achieving ZEB. In addition, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted to ensure that the proposed actions could be implemented economically. The existing sauna facility Styrsö Hafsbad was analyzed by means of a case study. Using thermal and electrical measurements, data will be partly gathered on-site. Furthermore, building measurements and layers will be recovered off-site using prior construction blueprints, while total water and energy use will be estimated using older receipts. A literature review was conducted to address the research questions by collecting and analyzing information acquired by keyword searches on selected databases, including Google Scholar, Mendeley, government agencies, and published theses. Understanding building energy balance, energy demands, energy-reduction strategies and measures, and other relevant terminologies are crucial for the literature review chapter. The building was simulated using the energy simulation software IDA-ICE. The results demonstrate that both nZEB and ZEB status are possible. The simulations showed that the change of ventilation system and installation of an air-to-air heat pump resulted in a total energy reduction of 71%, enough to achieve nZEB. The remaining reduction came from installing solar cells and changes in the building envelope, including lowering the temperature. A combination of the measures mentioned has to be applied to achieve ZEB. The initial strategy for achieving net-zero in the building is to reduce its primary areas of demand, with heat loss reduction measures having the most significant impact, followed by energy-efficient appliances and solar cells. Simulations demonstrated a slight reduction in energy usage when the roof was insulated, or the windows were replaced. Setting up a new air-to-air heat pump is more economical and prudent from a cost-benefit perspective. According to all economic performance approaches, it is a good metric. Additionally, ventilation systems are economically beneficial. On the other hand, alterations to the building envelope proved inefficient both econonomically and energy-performance-wise.
- PostFuture Risks on Moisture Safety in Ventilated Parallel Roofs: A Numerical Study of a Common Roof Type in Sweden Subjected to Future Weather Data Sets(2022)The climate is changing. The prognoses are a higher outdoor temperature and an increased absolute vapour content in outdoor air for all of Sweden. In Sweden today many roofs are already subjected to moisture-related damages and the guidelines for moisture safe design roofs are sparse. Two different roof constructions are normally used in Sweden today: the attic and the ventilated parallel roof. The ventilated parallel roof has not been evaluated for a future climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the moisture safety of ventilated parallel roofs subjected to a data set of future climates. The effect of orientation, inclination, colour and additional exterior insulation is evaluated for different locations in Sweden. Parallel roofs in Sweden are often ventilated by natural driving forces: wind and thermal buoyance. The model of the study considers a full data set of meteorological data for calculating directional dependent thermal buoyance, moisture infiltration from indoor to outdoor due to pressure differences, and moisture and heat transport through the roof. The result shows a future increased risk of mould growth in ventilated parallel roofs in all of Sweden. North is the dimensioning orientation. The most efficient way of reducing the risk is to use a reflective and bright-coloured roof.
- PostCombining building performance and life cycle assessment in early design stages: Developing a tool for parametric building sustainability assessment(2022)Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) and Building Performance Assessments (BPA) are today mainly introduced in the late stages of building design, although decisions with the largest influence on both building performance and environmental impact are taken already in the early design stages. Implementation of both LCA and BPA from the beginning of the design process allows for consideration of the multifaceted influence of architectural design decisions in the stages when they are the most effective. The present study aimed to identify the requirements for, and develop, a framework that integrates LCA and BPA for application early in the architectural design process. The thesis covers the requirement-based development of a parametric tool through the application of an incremental prototyping method. First, a literature and a tool review were conducted to identify and compile the barriers for the implementation of LCA and BPA in early design stages and the potential conflicts between the respective workflows. The barriers and conflicts were converted into tool requirements divided into four themes: required knowledge, design supportiveness, relevance to architects, and applicability in early design stages. The incremental prototyping method demonstrated useful potential through the parallel development of several prototypes, which allowed for isolated implementation of the requirements and a quick iterative development process for each prototype. However, further iterations are required for a more profound evaluation of the method. The resulting tool is a proof-of-concept integrating performance indicators quantifying embodied carbon, energy performance, daylight, and sunlight conditions into a common framework. Evaluated through a tool demonstration and a survey, with potential users, the tool was found to be promising for application in early stages. The evaluation showed agreement that the scope of the tool was suitable for independent use by architects to guide the design development based on several LCA and BPA indicators.
- PostCircular packaging plastic usage at construction sites: A study to increase the circularity of packaging plastic at construction sites in Sweden(2022)n 2017 there were 349 000 000 tonnes of plastics produced worldwide (Plastics Europe, 2022) and 2 411 000 tonnes of plastics were produced and imported in Sweden, with the packaging industry being the single most user of plastic followed by the construction sector (Almasai et al., 2019). Of the total waste sent to incineration almost half of the waste was from packaging plastic (Almasai et al., 2019). The aim of the project was to develop circular strategies that promote efficient plastic packaging usage at construction sites. The first step was to identify the total quantity and type of packaging plastic used and to quantify its presence in waste containers at the construction sites by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA). From the results, it was observed that Polyethylene (PE) was the major plastic type present at construction sites and the combustible containers had the highest quantities of plastic. Due to unreliable data, a worst case and a best case scenario were made with total recyclability of 5.8% and 40% respectively. An Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed with the results obtained from MFA to create a baseline scenario that was used for formulating circular strategies. A total of 25 circular strategies were developed from seven design principles adapted to circular economy. The suitable circular strategies were selected by a two step screening process which included environmental impacts and relevant framework. From the results, it could be observed that circular strategies with an emphasis on improving sorting and recycling, lowers the environmental impacts more than other strategies i.e transportation strategies. The circular strategy Less plastic types had the least amount of environmental impacts. This was due to the increased recyclability to 90%, which was achieved through improved sorting. This was accomplished by switching all hard plastic to the same type of Polypropylene (PP). An additional recycling scenario of 50% was considered because achieving a 90% recycling target might be difficult in the real world, given different working conditions at different construction sites. The results showed that even reaching a 50% recycling rate has significantly lesser impacts than the current scenario. Since PE was the major plastic type observed at the construction sites, it could be easier for suppliers to shift all hard plastic to PE instead of PP. Therefore the recycling scenarios were tested with PE and the results showed that the environmental impacts were close to PP.
- PostImpact of low frequency road traffic noise on indoor environments for different facade structures(2022)Road traffic noise is a major environmental problem in Europe where at least 20 percent of the EU population live in areas where traffic noise levels are harmful to health. Recent changes and regulations in Swedish law enables a higher sound pressure level at facade, making it easier to build closer to roads. Typical noise reduction measures improve sound insulation at mid and high frequencies well, while not being as effective at lower frequencies of 20–200 Hz. As a consequence, more low frequency traffic noise indoors can be expected as we build closer to trafficked streets. This thesis aims to investigate the effect of low frequency traffic noise inside dwellings where (1) a study of traffic modelling and field measurements on a selection of different facade structures is made to determine the indoor low frequency traffic noise and (2) a psychoacoustic study is carried out where the annoyance level from low frequency traffic noise is investigated through listening tests. The measurements suggest that none of the studied apartments have good insulation for low frequency noise. For all of the studied facades, peak pass by sound levels due to heavy vehicles are above our audible threshold and also at certain frequencies above the recommended Swedish guidelines for indoor low frequency equivalent levels. The listening test suggests that the largest annoyance for inhabitants inside dwellings comes from heavy vehicles while light vehicles pose no greater annoyance even if the peaks of the low frequency sound levels inside the dwelling are above the equivalent level guideline values. Furthermore, the listening test results suggest that the annoyance that inhabitants experience is not only from low frequency components from vehicles passing by at a constant speed with no significant tonal changes. Instead they suggest that the low frequency components constitute the annoying part when there are clear tonal changes such as in situations with accelerating vehicles.