PLANNING FOR POLLINATION - creating cohabitation through social-ecological urbanism
Examensarbete för masterexamen
Architecture and planning beyond sustainability (MPDSD), MSc
Tiderman Häll, Amanda
It is estimated that 657 billion US dollars worth of annual global food production relies on the contribution of pollinators. That does not consider other crucial ecosystem services that pollinators provide, such as maintaining balanced ecosystems. Still, the decline of pollinating insects is showing in alarming numbers around the world. Industrialization of agriculture, use of pesticides and fragmentation of habitats has led to species declining to the brink of extinction. Many wild bees have adapted to the urban landscape as an alternative habitat due to high urban biodiversity and the loss of their original habitats. The urbanization of cities and exploitation of nature is increasing intensively and rapidly, threatening the biodiversity that is crucial for species survival. The urban landscape has a high potential to further support biodiversity if properly planned and designed. There is however not many studies showcasing how this can be done. This thesis dives into the complex world of urban ecology and urban habitats. The focus is on two species of wild bees (Andrena marginata and Osmia bicornis) which represent different levels of sensitivities and can indicate the level of biodiversity. The report is divided into two parts; Identifying the needs and challenges in the current urban landscape for wild bees to spread and thrive; and based on that development, a plan and design proposal for Gothenburg to support a social ecological system through promoting urban habitats for the chosen species. The research identified two aspects that are equally important for increasing the quality of urban habitats: connectivity and resources – feeding and foraging within a reachable distance and spreading between habitats. The proposal suggests the usage of three scales of design: city-, neighborhood and street-scale, reflecting the dependency of the individual habitat, its surrounding context as well as its entire urban habitat network.