Hamnars syn på LNG - En kartläggning av hamnarnas möjligheter och hinder med införandet av LNG till linjesjöfarten på en specifik sjöfartsslinga i SECA-området
Examensarbete för kandidatexamen
Sjöfart och logistik (180 hp)
In 2015, the SECA directive will come into force. The limits for how much sulphur ship fuel may contain within a SECA area will be reduced from 1.0 to 0.1 percent. The directive is determined by the IMO and within Europe it will concern the area of the English Channel, North Sea and Baltic Sea. The more rigid restrictions mean that ship owners who have their operational activities in the area are facing a decision about what fuel they will continue to sail on as an alternative to today’s heavy fuel oil. An alternative is to start sailing on LNG. It is a liquefied gas that is cooled to minus 162 degrees, when burning not contributes to any emissions of sulphur oxide. The fuel is thus fully in line with the directive emission standards. This report aims to synoptically illustrate the opportunities and barriers that may exist with the introduction of LNG by the year of 2020, for each port on an existing liner shipping loop within the European SECA area. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with the port of Gothenburg, Helsingborg and Bremerhaven. Based on the transcribed interviews themes were identified It was considered interesting to study the ports opinion concerning their opportunities and barriers to offer LNG for feeder container ships to the year of 2020. An insight into the ports opinions, perceptions, feelings, and experiences needed to be approached, why semi-structured interviews were chosen as a data collection method. The results show that all ports welcomes LNG from an environmental perspective while they consider that the fuel is sustainable for future restrictions and supply. The main barriers identified are the uncertainty for economic profitability when there is an uncertain situation to invest in LNG today. This because the LNG facilities are relatively expensive, the market is still small, the price varies and the shipping companies are not yet prepared to buy the fuel. The regulatory framework and the technology surrounding bunkering of LNG is today not yet fully developed and the fact that it is not allow to bunkering during loading/unloading is also a barrier, when it leads both to a cautious situation while representing a time barrier to shipping companies. In order to enable the introduction of LNG to the shipping loop it would be necessary with agreements, investors, partners, EU/government grants, as well as a cheaper and more stable price in the market that can be had by such agreement with suppliers and by iii extracting more LNG to the market. We want to emphasize the importance of continued research, both on the regulatory and technical solutions. The discussion around whether SECA directives may result in a change in the flow of goods and unequal competitive opportunities for ports in the area but also between them. All ports in the loop risk losing some customers. This could be solved if the SECA directives will be applicable in whole Europe.
Annan teknik , Transport , Other Engineering and Technologies , Transport