Methods of surveillance and level of compliance for current sulfur regulations within sulfur emission controlled area
Examensarbete på grundnivå
The typical marine fuels contain sulfur and as the fuel gets combusted in the engine, sulfur dioxide (SOx) is created and emitted. Once emitted into the atmosphere, it affects both the environment and the physical health of the population. Through gradual restriction in certain areas called “Sulfur Emission Controlled Area (SECA)” within the maritime industry, an aspiration by International Maritime Organization (IMO) is to remove the emittance of SOx into the atmosphere. As restrictions enter into force, surveillance must be conducted to ensure the compliance of each vessel. In this study, different methods to survey the compliance within SECA are evaluated. Furthermore, as the new global Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) restriction entered into force at the beginning of 2020, possible methods to survey global compliance are assessed. The study further highlights the compliance rate within SECA and what the sanctions could be if the vessels are not complying. The results showed that to survey the SECAs, there is today generally one method that could be used, fuel sample. Others are used as a first indication of non-compliance. Primarily, because of the slow pace of adding or changing the law to be able to use the new technology as evidence of non-compliance and file sanctions. The results further showed that the compliance rate within the European SECA is steady around 95%, where most non-compliant vessels have conducted a late fuel-changeover. Moreover, the 5% non-compliant vessels’ sanctions are generally handled within Criminal Law or the Environmental Code. This depends on which Member State the vessel was located in.
Compliance, surveillance , SECA , shipping , FSC , sniffer , PSC , SOx