Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Distribution System Performance for Short Medium Range Civil Aircraft
Examensarbete för masterexamen
Applied mechanics (MPAME), MSc
Aviation is one of the most prominent parts of the transportation sector nowadays, and its share is growing globally, so it is necessary to reduce its emissions. The EU plan for net zero emissions by 2050 needs to be considered for civil aircraft as well. One of the most practical solutions for aviation emissions reduction is to use other options than fossil fuels, like liquid Hydrogen. This project is based on the Airbus model A321 as a twin-engine civil aircraft candidate. Liquid Hydrogen is in cryogenic condition (22K, 1.6bar), and it needs to be pumped during Maximum Take-Off (MTO) to a pressure of 40.6 bar in the combustion chamber. The pressure rise duty from the tank to the high-pressure pump must be done by two pumps in the fuel line a booster pump and a high-pressure pump. This study has two parts, the first concerns the fuel system design, and the second part comprises the design of the booster pump. We have designed the fuel system as a general study to see what components have to be through the fuel line from the tank to the high-pressure pump. These components include the pipeline to carry the liquid Hydrogen, valves for different roles in the system, and fitting for pipeline joints or direction changes. The booster pump is responsible for delivering the fuel from the tank to the fuel lines. According to Brewer’s study , this booster pump can be of the centrifugal type with specific boundary conditions for design. The pump inlet/outlet boundary conditions are the direct results of the real gas modeling using CoolProp. CoolProps helps us to determine the properties of the LH2 at a given location in the fuel system stage to obtain preliminary values for the booster pump design. MTO is the booster pump design point for this research delivering a mass flow of 0.298 kg/s at a rotational speed of 12312 RPM. The CFD simulation is done using the ANSYS2021R1 package via the CFX solver. The values for preliminary design are used to generate the blade geometry, using Vista CPD and BladeGen. We have also considered off-design simulations for different points by changing mass flow/rotational speed to create a performance curve for the booster pump. This study includes the CFD design for the booster pump as the only component in which we assessed the preliminary design.
Booster Pump, Cryogenic, Hydrogen, MTO