Negative emission technologies in an intermittent electricity system
Examensarbete för masterexamen
Sustainable energy systems (MPSES), MSc
Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere is likely to be needed to limit global warming to 1.5°C or 2°C and thereby meeting the Paris Agreement. Negative Emissions Technologies (NETs) can be used to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, thereby lowering the atmospheric concentration. Bio-Energy Carbon Capture and Stor-age (BECCS) and Direct Air Carbon Capture and Storage (DACCS) are NETs that have a direct relation with the electricity system. In this work, it is investigated how BECCS and DACCS interact with an intermittent electricity system to achieve net negative emissions in the sector. A literature study and energy systems modelling are performed to achieve the aim. DACCS is the main focus of the literature study since the technology is to be applied in the energy systems model while BECCS is already implemented in the model. The work shows that DACCS has a higher capturing cost per ton of CO2 than BECCS, implying that it is less costly to capture CO2 using BECCS under the assumptions made in this study. However, due to BECCS having a high Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) in combination with electricity being the main product by quantity in the system, the total system cost is lower using DACCS as negative emission provider. Moreover, DACCS outcompetes BECCS in Spain (ES3), Ireland (IE) and Hungary (HU) for the Base case where both DACCS and BECCS are allowed to provide the system with negative emis-sions. However, in the case where a low biomass price is applied for IE, BECCS and DACCS co-exist in the system.
Negative emission technologies , DACCS , BECCS , Electricity system modelling , Wind power , Solar PV