Energy use in office buildings and their impact on Gothenburg’s energy system: Assessment of load management measures
Examensarbete för masterexamen
The electrification of society in unison with the transition toward a fossil free energy system create the urge for increased flexibility and energy efficiency measures. Commercial buildings stand for a large portion of energy consumed today and can play a significant role to reach the overarching goal of a sustainable energy system. In this thesis technical actions applicable for property owners were evaluated in their effectiveness to create economic incentive in combination with system benefits. Assessments of load management measures and technical actions were conducted by using building performance modelling in IDA ICE, mixed integer linear programming in MATLAB, and literature reviews. The technical actions investigated in this report include building envelope improvement, external blind utilisation, global temperature adjustment, local electricity production, and li-ion battery storage. The investigation was conducted as a parameter study in relation to a Reference Case model built with input data from Swedish building industry standards and recommendations aimed for office operation. The system of district heating, district cooling, and electricity are analysed separately within the building boundary and on system level. Enhanced performance in the form of decreased thermal transmittance reduced the need for heating but also increased the need for cooling. Battery implementation and solar PVs presented opportunities as demand side management strategies to adapt building electricity consumption to allow variable renewable energy technology penetration in the energy system. The results and discussion indicate the importance of cooperation between supply and demand stakeholders to create economic feasibility in energy load management measures.
District heating, District cooling, Electricity system, Building envelope performance, Solar PVs, Battery storage