Offshore Oil and Gas Activities in Arctic areas
Examensarbete för masterexamen
Naval architecture and ocean engineering (MPNAV), MSc
Karlström Thylander, Emma
The aim of this thesis report is to investigate how existing Best Available Techniques (BAT) for some key systems are affected by Arctic conditions and future expected requirements in Norway. The thesis report is focusing on assessing three systems with the most planned emissions to air and discharges to sea in oil and gas production facilities; Power and Heat generation, Flare system and Produced Water system. The thesis has been conducted in cooperation with Det Norske Veritas in Høvik, Norway during spring of 2013. This report consists of two parts; the first part involves the context and general settings on the Norwegian Continental shelf and the Arctic areas. This includes the oil and natural gas industry in Norway, identified environmental impacts and Arctic conditions. The existing regulation and guidelines on the Norwegian Continental shelf have been summarized and future requirements and guidelines for the Arctic areas have been considered and assessed to as large extent as possible. The second part consists of the findings of existing BAT and expected changes due to Arctic conditions for the key systems studied. By comparing the technical constraints and the environmental requirements the alternatives have been assessed if appropriate for Arctic conditions. The findings include expectations of stricter requirements for the Arctic areas in Norway at present and, depending on case, probably even stricter in the future. This will affect the existing BAT when applied with the expected requirements and the Arctic conditions. In general there are increased requirements when it comes to discharges to sea where the target of zero discharges is emphasized. Norway has both long term target to reduce emissions to air and to be carbon neutral in the future and to protect flora and fauna in the Arctic areas. What in general can be said from the findings are that there will probably be changes and effects on the existing BAT alternatives with Arctic conditions, mainly due to lower temperatures, remoteness and increased requirements regarding emissions and discharges to sea. There is also the question whether or not BAT is good enough for the Arctic? What is considered BAT is changing with time and perhaps there is a need for developing and implement techniques which currently are not presently regarded as BAT. There are large uncertainties when it comes to impacts and effects from offshore activities on the Arctic environment. What is considered BAT today might not be the same tomorrow and collaboration between different stakeholder such as governments, companies and nations are important for the future to be able to decrease the environmental impacts from oil and gas industry.
Transport , Hållbar utveckling , Farkostteknik , Transport , Sustainable Development , Vehicle Engineering