The application of the fuel cells in the marine sector - The future and the IMO regulations from researchers’ point of view
Examensarbete på grundnivå
Today most of the vessels have traditional internal combustion engines and use fossil fuels. The emissions from the ships consist of for instance, particles and carbon dioxide. While with fuel cells more energy can be extracted from the same amount of fuel. Because of the chemical reaction with water and electric current the fuel cell has very low to none emissions. The aim of the research foremost is to determine if fuel cells onboard is an applicable alternative solution to reduce carbon dioxide emissions on the fleet. If it is applicable on marine vessels, what is preventing them from being implemented onboard and will it be possible to reach the criteria of the International Marine Organisation (IMO) regarding the reduction of minimum of 50% of carbon dioxide emissions from ships until the year 2050. To be able to answer the main and sub questions the relevant material was found by doing a literature study and reading up to date scientific articles and books. Interviews were made with researchers and companies with relevant, experienced and with great knowledge within the topic. The authors analyse whether fuel cells are a future alternative propulsion system and what it is that prevents it from being applied. The study is based on interviews and literature reviews. Several persons with various backgrounds and with great knowledge about fuel cells systems, implementing them onboard or knowledge about the marine environment and emissions were interviewed and their opinions were examined. What has been noted in the result is that fuel cells are a very possible technology in the future onboard ships to strive for Zero- emissions. Furthermore, that several different technologies may be applied in order to be able to reach the IMO's requirements regarding reducing the CO2 emissions by 50% until year 2050. However, there are some things that prevent them from being implemented. The interviewees highlight five preventions and these are fuelling fuel cells, scepticism of hydrogen as fuel, regulations, infrastructure, cost and market. It is important to not look at the different solutions as competitors, but to see them as a complement to each other. In the end there is a common goal and it is to reduce the emissions, to achieve Zero emissions, to reach the climate goals and make the world a better place.
Fuel cell systems , regulations , transition phase , emissions , marine environment