United States Hydrogen Infrastructure and Market Overview A Northeast Purchasing Scenario Analysis

Examensarbete för masterexamen
Master's Thesis
Supply chain management (MPSCM), MSc
Lejon, Linus
Bengtsson Philipsson, Albin
The unique properties of hydrogen make it a promising candidate in the transition towards a sustainable society. As hydrogen is a rapidly evolving market where the U.S government is pursuing efforts to develop a clean hydrogen industry, the novelty of the topic is evident. This study examines the as-is infrastructure and market landscape for hydrogen in the U.S. It also develops and evaluates purchasing scenarios to gain insights into the feasibility and implications of adapting hydrogen to plants of heavy duty truck production. By understanding the potential of hydrogen and assessing its existing market dynamics, this study contributes to the ongoing explorations of hydrogen as a fueling solution. The qualitative research comprises literature research, semi-structured interviews, internal seminars, and internal company events. Data gathered is analyzed through a thematic analysis approach. The hydrogen market currently relies on high majority gray hydrogen (>99 %). There are targeted efforts in the selected northeast area for developing supply infrastructure like hubs and refueling stations. Technological advancements will play a key role in shaping the market’s potential. The emergence of new buyers and the increasing demand for clean hydrogen to decarbonize hard-to-abate industries will be drivers of the market. Two important acts, IIJA and IRA, are also driving the market with a notable $ 9.5 billion funding for hubs and several valuable tax credits. One specific tax credit being the 45V, encouraging clean hydrogen production through tax credits per kg of hydrogen produced, over a ten-year period. The study explores four purchasing scenarios, with their viability dependent on timing and contextual factors. Extending the first purchasing solution of mobile stations is critical to navigate market uncertainties. The solution has an estimated switching point above 13 tons of hydrogen demand per year or at a breach of 500 kg peak volume needed within relevant delivery occurrences, currently at once every two weeks. Lastly, the color categorization of hydrogen should probably be switched to a numerical carbon intensity based one instead.
U.S. Hydrogen Infrastructure , Hydrogen Supply Chain , Clean Hydrogen Hubs , Purchasing of Hydrogen , Sustainable Development
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